It seems to me that there are two issues:
"With 1 or more starred" is a prepositional phrase that some are interpreting differently
The word "starred" is uncommonly used in English
How about we rephrase the statement to avoid those two issues reduce the amount of ambiguity?
Post 10 messages in chat, with at least one receiving a star.
My statement is ...
There's no badge which you can earn multiple times for a single post, and Notable Question is no exception to this. It does have a higher tier gold equivalent: Famous Question for 10,000 views.
Note that if these badges would stack somehow, you would already have earned two Popular Question badges for getting 2,000 views.
Badges are never directly awarded by users. They're only extremely rarely awarded by staff and that's only in special situations (Not a Robot, for example).
The only real way we have to "thank" someone is through bounties. That said, you note that it seems inappropriate to bounty this specific answer as it is outdated and the bounty will only draw ...
Your latest badge was from this post - https://apple.stackexchange.com/a/330084/5472 - where you presumably used the “share” control to copy the URL to another post on the site. People or crawlers have followed that link enough to badge you.
Short of that mechanism, on previous occasions, people experiencing this surprise either forgot that they posted the ...
Despite being a little perplexed about what this would achieve, I like the general idea so here's some more tweaks..
If this is to recognise the questioner for stretching the knowledge of answerers, a clear rubrik may be visits from people with high rep on the given tags. Though I don't hear much about that kind of signalling so pencil that.
If this is to ...
Many hard questions are also hard to understand because they require a very deep knowledge in some field so often very few people vote on them because they simply don't understand them. This means that only vote-count wouldn't be a good criteria to qualify a question as hard or perplexing one.
However, an alternative approach might work much better but ...