Here is similar query to the other answer, but it also includes the questions which were closed and later reopened (not only the one which are still closed).
Questions answered by a user before they were closed
SELECT DISTINCT a.Id AS [Post Link]
FROM PostHistory AS ph
INNER JOIN Posts AS a
ON a.ParentId = ph.PostId
AND a.CreationDate < ph....
Yes, there is now.
I've got five answers by you on Meta Stack Exchange which qualify:
The query looks at questions which are currently closed; if they have been reopened in the meantime, they will not appear in the results.
After a request by Sonic, the query now also tells you if the answer would have qualified for the Explainer / Refiner / Illuminator ...