As far as I can tell, we save one most recent image. Usually that's the image that you're currently using. You switched from that image to your Gravatar but that doesn't mean that we get rid of your image. It's considered a feature that we retain one image and allow you to swap to your Gravatar.
If you really want us to lose that image, you'll need to upload ...
Turns out it was the same issue as the one described here, I had a second separate account and the system was confusing that for this one.
As the developer said there:
If anyone else is reading this and has the same problem, please contact us and we will fix it for you.
I have contacted SE team via the contact form and they merged the accounts.
What is shown there is the Description field of a StackApps Application.
That field has the following info message:
This text-only blurb will be shown to users during authentication.
It is not meant to contain markdown. The description need to be edited by the author of the app (in this case that is also Stack Exchange). No fixes in the code are needed.