Where is the list of badges sorted by points earned, so that I can see what next badge I am going to get?
Is there any list like this?
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Badges are not given according to reputation. Badges are awarded on completion of a task specified with every badge. So you have get privileges to complete task(s) to earn the badge.
To check privileges you just have to visit the "Privileges" page from your profile, or add "/privileges" to the site URL, like so: https://meta.stackexchange.com/privileges.
The link at the top of the page for Badges will show you all the badges with their information and requirements, as well as which ones you've already received.
Full list of badges is available at
/badges of every site, for example on the main site:
They are sorted alphabetically only, you can't change that - you can only filter them by their type: Gold, Silver, Bronze or all.
Apart of the ordinary badges, there are also "Tag Badges" - clicking the "tags" tab in the Badges page will show you. As you can see, those are earned by collecting enough upvotes on your answers (not questions) and you can see your "progress" in the tags tab of your profile - for example right now you need 96 more upvotes for asp.net to earn the bronze badge of that tag.
Now here is something not widely known yet - you can see the progress of some badges in the
/review page of each site. For example on the main site:
Couldn't find any official list but got two examples of my own on two sites:
That's the closest you get to what you asked for, anyway like already said - badges got nothing to do with reputation - except maybe for the tag badges that depend on amount of upvoted. In theory, one can have 100,000 reputation and gain only couple of bronze badges.
Further to the tips in the other answers, it is also possible to do this for the Research Assistant badge. This progress bar is located on the 'info' tab of a tag wiki - e.g biology.se/tags/human-biology/info:
As you would expect, once the Strunk & White badge has been achieved the panel on the review page switches to tracking the progress of the Copy Editor badge:
Note that the table of reviews that appears after you have Strunk & White allows you to also track your progress (with a teensy bit of maths) towards the Reviewer badge.
You could also monitor your progress towards Deputy and Marshal by viewing your flagging history. Note that only accepted Moderator Attention flags count:
Finally, there is a web-app that allows you to monitor your progress towards a large number of badges on any site in the SE network:
This tool is available here.