I think the question is how they rank not just appear.
It says here that:
"The Golden Rule of SEO: Content is King" is the first thing to
consider. It's quite simple: have good content. That's the primary
reason Stack Overflow has a chance to rank at Google, simply because
of how page ranking works.
Websites that have no optimization or guidelines concerns whatsoever
but got nice stuff have a great chance of ranking high, because there
will be people linking to good content. And most sites trying to do
SEO without content won't rank well because nobody will link to them.
With that been said, Stack Overflow does a lot of work from a long
time ago to keep clean HTML code.
One good example is how rel='canonical' is applied in
here to keep search engines away from linking to duplicate content. For
instance, let's get this page source:
<link rel="canonical" href="https://meta.stackexchange.com/questions/14056/seo-in-stackoverflow">
That is an optimization that will not help to directly rank in the
search engine, but it will make the results the engine can find much
more relevant and through that it might generate more links (from
people who found what they were looking for) to the good content it
already have, thus actually indirectly improving its rank.